Sustainable security: Reducing Emissions in Military Supply ChainsOn July 10, 2024, the International Military Council on Climate and Security (IMCCS
The 2022 invasion of Ukraine shocked Europe out of its security slumber. Suddenly, European Union member states became painfully aware of Europe’s security risks and dependencies.
Concepts, strategies and partnershipsAt the start of each academic year, the Faculty of Military Sciences (FMS) at the Netherlands Defence Academy releases the Netherlands Annual Review of Military Studies (NL ARMS), presenting a segment of its research act
In a new report for The Clingendael Institute and The Planetary Security Initiative, Tobias von Lossow and Annabelle Houdret offer five action areas for thinking beyond traditional approaches and promoting opportunities for water cooperation in the Middle East.
The Arctic is considered a global climatic emergency hotspot. The melting of ice in the High North is not just a local issue, as its impact is global in nature.
Climate security risks are becoming increasingly noticeable. Extreme heat and drought aggravate water and food insecurity in the world’s already most fragile countries.
On 15-17 December 2022, the Institute of Peace and Conflict Studies (IPCS) and the Planetary Security Initiative (PSI) convened a Regional Workshop on Climate Security in the Bay of Bengal, in Chiang Mai, Thailand.

Adapting to survive: climate change and famine in Somalia

  • horn of Africa
  • somalia
Adapting to survive remains the only option for millions of Somalis as their country is on the precipice of yet another famine, the third in three decades.
Energy security and climate change intersect foreign policy at the juncture of national security.
The IPCS taskforce (TF) on climate security in India was convened over 2021-22.
Iraq finds itself amid a water crisis that far exceeds previous experiences with water scarcity and acute shortages.
With a new parliament elected and new government to be formed, opportunities for addressing some of Iraq’s most pressing water issues emerge. Such actions could be linked to and complement efforts that address existing climate-related challenges.
Today the Expert Group of the International Military Council on Climate and Security (IMCCS Expert Group) launched a 
On 12 May, the Planetary Security Initiative (PSI) is officially launching the Basra Forum (BF) for Climate, Environment and Security at its second climate-security dialogue in Basra, southern Iraq.
Traditionally, European climate constituencies have mainly focused on the challenge of decarbonising big oil, gas and energy-intensive industry sectors, such as steel and cement.
The Bay of Bengal (BoB) region is emerging as an important focal point for climate security risks. This is largely due to a multi-layered interplay of geopolitical, geostrategic, and climate-related regional dynamics. It forms the final leg between West and East Asia.
Climate-related security risks pose grave challenges to peace and stability in South Asia. The intensified effects of climate change have serious human and regional security implications for India.
Historical political cooperation between the EU and India has been characterized by benign neglect and unfulfilled potential.
The European Union has recently started in earnest to climate-mainstream its defence and security sectors.
The Expert Group of the International Military Council on Climate and Security (IMCCS) released its second annual World Climate and Security Report.

PSI launches first review of climate security practices

  • climate security
  • Climate Risk
  • climate change
  • climate policy
first report and overview of climate security practices. Climate security research has evolved tremendously over the past 20 years in the direction of how to address security risks related to climate change. Action on the ground is still limited but holds a lot of potential. Therefore, interest is growing in the development, diplomacy and defence sectors to engage in this space.
A new policy brief by the Planetary Security Initiative (PSI) analyses and compares the implications of natural gas extraction in Mozambique and Cyprus. The discovery of natural gas reserves off the coast of these two countries has sparked external investment which has security, environmental and geopolitical implications.

New report: Climate and Security in Brazil

  • climate security
The Expert Group of the International Military Council on Climate and Security (IMCCS) released a new report urging Brazilian leaders to make climate change and counter-deforestation a “security priority,” and to “climate-proof” the nation’s security.
The debate on how climate change and security are related is confronted by those fearing unnecessary securitisation and others being cautious about the topic of security stretching to issues beyond the abuse of power leading to deadly conflicts. This Clingendael alert is a call for a more open debate on what lies behind fears for the securitisation of climate change, particularly on the opposition to engage the military.

Signs of progress: environment and conflict in the UN Security Council

  • environmental security
  • Conflict
  • environment peacebuilding
What is needed to fully tackle the complex challenges around environmental dimensions of armed conflicts? Civil society, affected states and experts have struggled with this essential question for decades. This briefing note elaborates on the latest insights on this issue as expressed during an informal (Arria formula) meeting on this topic in the United Nations Security Council (UNSC).

Ready for take-off? Military responses to climate change

  • climate security
  • Military
  • climate change
  • Climate Risk
A new report by the Clingendael Institute for the Netherlands Ministry of Defence highlights how military organisations respond to climate change through systematic adaptation and mitigation strategies. The study looks at how the Netherlands and 11 other armed forces predict, prepare, operate and contribute to climate change. Impacts are felt not only in their missions abroad, but also at home.

GCA Paper: 'Making Peace with Climate Adaptation'

  • GCA
  • climate change adaptation
  • security risks
  • peacebuilding
  • Conflict
How can climate action contribute to peacebuilding? And how can peace intervention be more effective due to taking to account of climate impacts? This new study on the role of climate adaptation in reducing security risks was commissioned by the Global Commission on Adaptation as part of a series of background papers for the 2019 Flagship Report Adapt Now.

Urbanisation and Climate Security- Policy Brief

  • climate security
  • climate change
  • security
This new PSI policy brief looks at the under-researched relationship between urbanization and climate-security. Globally the amount of people living in cities is one the rise and non-conflict violence in cities is on the rise. While cities worldwide face climate risks, cities of the global South are struggling most to combined the pace of urban growth with a lack of natural resources. This results in poor planning and highly unequal processes of urbanization, where tensions over these resources are on the rise.

The Arctic Elephant: Europe & Geopolitics of the High North

  • EU
  • arctic
  • geopolitics
This policy brief argues that there is an urgent need for the EU and European countries to upgrade the Arctic diplomatic dialogue to address security and geopolitical concerns.

Climate Change Increases Likelihood of Violent Extremism

  • Violent extremism
  • climate change
Development and security cannot do without the other. It is not enough to counter violent extremism by addressing the symptoms; understanding and focusing on root causes, in regions such as the Western Sahel, is essential to countering violent extremism.

Resource Wars: ‘Less is More Conflict Prevention’

  • Natural Resources
  • Conflict drivers
How could minimising material, water, and energy consumption in the EU contribute to conflict prevention? This policy brief explores unsustainable environmental footprints in relation to conflict risk — and what the EU can do about this.
The security dimensions of climate change and resource degradation affect military organisations’ operations. This policy brief outlines the nexus between climate change and natural resources on the one hand, and security on the other.

Climate & Security: Strategic Capability Game Takeaways

  • conflict risk
  • policy
What are the implications of climate change on the policies of governmental institutions and non-governmental organisations? And how can they play a role in mitigating climate-related conflict risk?
Planetary Security Initiatives are increasingly moving from analysis to action. The recently agreed upon Plan of Action (POA) on Resilience in the Caribbean, is an excellent example of how regional experts developed a list with 2-do’s to tackle the climate-security nexus in this region, including sharing knowledge, action in the field of water, food and energy, strengthening existing networks on resilience and aligning existing activities.
The Planetary Security Initiative proudly presents another highly relevant policy brief. Co-authored by Shiloh Fetzek and Lieutenant Commander Oliver-Leighton (Ret.) this brief concerns the Caribbean, a region highly exposed to a wide range of climate change impacts including more frequent or intense tropical storms, changing precipitation patterns (more intense rainfalls and drought), sea level rise and ocean acidifcation.
The Planetary Security Initiative (PSI) is pleased to launch a new report, Climate Security – Making it #Doable. It reviews progress made in the past year on addressing climate-related security risks despite geopolitical turmoil.
With the liberation of Mosul from so-called Islamic State (IS) in November 2017, Iraq entered – once again – a post-conflict period. While starting the process of rebuilding the country, Iraq is facing a severe water crisis characterised by acute scarcity, dwindling resources and sharply declining water quality.
Report which assesses to what extent initiatives regarding landscape restoration address migration and security objectives in Africa.
The European Union (EU) has recognized the high-probability, high impact threat climate change poses to international security, but is still formulating a response commensurate to the threat. This new report argues that the security threats of climate change should be more routinely integrated into EU institutions at a senior level and be elevated alongside other ‘traditional’ security issues like terrorism and nuclear threats.
For over a decade the EU has shown interest in mitigating climate-related security risks, but this has hardly translated into effective policies. In this policy brief, the cases of Iraq and Mali illustrate how EU missions, policies and related financial instruments could be adjusted to take due account of the climate-security nexus.
By 2050, the UN estimates that 70 percent of the global population will be living in urban areas. Therefore, understanding and anticipating the ability of cities to manage and avoid the negative effects of climate-related changes and events is of utmost importance. This paper presents a conceptual framework to quantify the climate resilience of cities to guide policymakers and community leaders in identifying challenges and opportunities.
A short and comprehensive analysis & summary of three crucial studies recently published by the World Bank (WB), the Food and Agricultural Organisation (FAO) and the Intergovernmental Science Policy Platform on Biodiversity and Ecosystem Services (IPBES) which prominently addressed the link between degradation of land, water stress and higher food prices with migration.
Where in the world will people’s lives be affected by water issues by the year 2050? What is the impact of the growing global population, further urbanisation and climate change on these water risks, the food supply and migration?
This policy brief discusses how climate change related security challenges facing small island states have been addressed by the UN Security Council. Rising sea level poses a direct threat to their existence and intensified hurricanes resulted in chaos in the Carribean in 2017. This also has repercussions for international peace and security. Steps forward and alternatives are identified for addressing this agenda.
This policy brief explores how climate change adaptation and peacebulding could play a role in promoting peace and preventing climate-related conflicts. For practitioners, the integration of peacebuilding and climate change adaptation still remains a challenge. To make progress, this policy brief outlines key issues that must be resolved.
Le centre du Mali est miné par des litiges fonciers et des droits contestés relatifs aux sites de pâturage et d’abreuvement. La communauté internationale sous-estime ces litiges. Pourtant, comme le montre la présente note de politique, les litiges locaux relatifs aux ressources ne sont pas de simples affaires personnelles mais plutôt des facteurs déstabilisants pour des communautés entières.
Central Mali is plagued by land disputes and contested grazing and watering rights, underestimated by the international community. Yet, local disputes over resources are not merely individual matters, but destabilising factors for entire communities.
This policy brief argues structural inequalities and conflict-sensitivity need to be mainstreamed into climate adaptation measures based on the case-study of Mali. While there are many adaptation projects further assessment is needed to promote inclusion and prevent violence.
This policy brief analyses how local resource conflicts affect wider development and security dynamics in Mali. It argues that in order to manage the ripple-effects of local conflicts, there needs to be investment in conflict prevention, as well as understanding and addressing the impacts of population growth and climate change.
This report looks at progress made on policy and practical responses to climate-security risks for 2016-2017 and sets out the key achievements, pitfalls and new challenges facing the foreign policy community working to reduce climate-fragility risks.
This policy brief considers the interlinkages between climate change, migration and security, and argues that despite the lack of scientific consensus the potential consequences are too large to ignore and no-regret policy options should be adopted. 
In this policy brief Leon Fuerth argues a new type of complex problems, climate change being the apex example, needs a new type of governance that anticipates for future threats.
UN Secretary General António Guterres released a report on the humanitarian crisis in the Lake Chad Basin region. The report calls upon countries to identify and address the root causes of what some say is the world’s most extensive humanitarian crises.
9 June 2017 saw the launch of a new volume in which security experts identify 12 climate and security epicenters that will shape the geostrategic landscape of the 21st century.
Many countries in the MENA region could benefit from enhanced cooperation to deal with challenges in the WEF-Security Nexus approach.
Improving food insecurity can help reduce tensions and addresses some of the fundamental grievances that motivate conflict.
Water scarcity is regarded as the most important issue in relation to political tension and conflict. What are the relations between water, climate and human security?
The nexus between natural resources and security needs to be better understood and more closely monitored. This issue brief summarizes the key takeaways of a meeting at the Future Force Conference.
Access to sufficient and healthy food is crucial to human security and welfare. This policy brief maps out the specific risks that foreign policy-makers need to be aware of.
WG 15 Arctic
This policy brief considers seismic testing on the human security of the Baffin Island Inuit with the objective of exploring social pathways of global warming.
The links between climate change, conflict and fragility are not simple and linear. This report explores how climate change acts as a risks multiplier in regards to non-state armed groups.
The demand for water rises along with population growth, urbanisation. and increased domestic and industrial use, while climate change acts as a threat multiplier for water and food insecurity. This policy brief discusses the need for multi-track water diplomacy.
This briefing note discusses how foresight tools offer a practical toolset for formulating responses to climate security risks, even in the context of significant uncertainty.
This policy brief discusses the multi-faceted character of climate risks and the challenges that occur when this is addressed in practice.
A thematic study on climate change was published in the Clingendael Strategic Monitor. It describes the key trends in the field of climate change for the EU.
The Planetary Security Initiative is proud to publish the first policy brief based on the outcomes of the PSC 2016. This brief concerns the EU and the importance of addressing climate security in its external activities.

Economics of Planetary Security

A new monitor has for the first time modelled the economic impact of climate change together with conflict risk with startling results.
Just before the Conference, the report Towards A Global Resilience Agenda - Action on Climate Fragility Risks has been published.